How to configure Ports and Protocols in IPtables
This allows full access through our firewall to certain trusted sources (host PCs). Now we’ll look at how we can filter against protocols and ports to further refine what incoming packets we allow and what we block.
Before we can begin, we need to know what protocol and port number a given service uses. For a simple example, lets look at bittorrent. Bittorrent uses the tcp protocol on port 6881, so we would need to allow all tcp packets on destination port (the port on which they arrive at our machine) 6881:
# Accept tcp packets on destination port 6881 (bittorrent) iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 6881 -j ACCEPT
Here we append (-A) a rule to the INPUT chain for packets matching the tcp protocol (-pÂ tcp) and entering our machine on destination port 6881 (--dportÂ 6881).
Note:Â In order to use matches such as destination or source ports (--dportÂ orÂ --sport), youÂ mustÂ first specify the protocol (tcp, udp, icmp, all).
We can also extend the above to include a port range, for example, allowing all tcp packets on the range 6881 to 6890:
# Accept tcp packets on destination ports 6881-6890 iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 6881:6890 -j ACCEPT
# Accept tcp packets on destination port 22 (SSH) iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 22 -j ACCEPT
This will open up port 22 (SSH) to all incoming tcp connections which poses a potential security threat as hackers could try brute force cracking on accounts with weak passwords. However, if we know the IP addresses of trusted remote machines that will be used to log on using SSH, we can limit access to only these source IP addresses. For example, if we just wanted to open up SSH access on our private lan (192.168.0.x), we can limit access to just this source IP address range:
# Accept tcp packets on destination port 22 (SSH) from private LAN iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s 192.168.0.0/24 --dport 22 -j ACCEPT
Using source IP filtering allows us to securely open up SSH access on port 22 to only trusted IP addresses. For example, we could use this method to allow remote logins between work and home machines. To all other IP addresses, the port (and service) would appear closed as if the service were disabled so hackers using port scanning methods are likely to pass us by.
This Article has been referred from http://wiki.centos.org
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